General surgery specializes in surgical procedures of the thyroid ducts, bile ducts, appendix, gallbladder, liver, small bowel, colon, esophagus and the stomach. It helps to treat and manage diseases of soft tissues, trauma, skin, breast, hernias and includes peripheral vascular surgical procedures like gastroscopy and colonoscopy.
Trauma surgery/ Surgical Critical Care
The specialized surgical branch that deals with potential or life-threatening diseases is called Surgical Critical care. The lives of patients are saved due to various surgical and non-operative knowledge. Specialists in this branch of medicine treat conditions like ischemia, acute inflammation, infection, operation, trauma, burns and other such injuries to the tissue.
Also known as band aid surgery is a minimally invasive or keyhole surgical procedure wherein an incision is made to the abdomen or pelvis. The size of the incision can be between 0.5 to 1.5 cms and is big enough for a laparoscope to go in. Through this the surgeon can perform the surgery by looking at the affected part on a monitor. This surgery is popular as it causes less pain and hemorrhage and has a faster recovery time period.
This field of medicine deals with disorders of the colon, anus and rectum. Colorectal surgery was called proctology earlier, but now the term Proctology is used for procedures related to the rectum and anus. Colectomy, colostomy, strictureplasty, anoplasty, polypectomy are some colorectal surgeries. Colonoscopy is a diagnostic procedure which is associated with colorectal surgery.
Breast surgery is usually divided into three types – breast reduction, breast augmentation and breast reconstruction surgery. Breast reduction surgery removes excess fat, skin and glandular tissue. Breast augmentation is done to enhance the contour, size and appearance of the breasts. Breast reconstruction is done to recreate breasts with volume, contour and appearance.
Vascular surgery is performed to treat the diseases of the vascular system (lymphatic circulation, arteries and veins). Surgical reconstruction, minimally invasive catheter procedures and medical therapy are part of the treatment. Vascular surgeons treat and manage all diseases of the vascular system except those affecting the heart and brain.
This type of surgery is done on endocrine glands, including thyroid and parathyroid gland, adrenal glands, pancreatic endocrine gland, and neuroendocrine glands. Endocrine gland can be done to treat many glandular conditions such as thyroid cancer, benign multinodular goiter etc. Surgery might include partial and total removal of the thyroid gland.
Surgical oncology focuses on managing tumors including cancerous tumors. Surgery is performed to diagnose the stage of cancer and treat it. It is combined with other treatments such as radiation therapy, chemotherapy or hormone therapy, before and after surgery in order to help cancer prevention, spread, growth and recurrence.
Cardiothoracic surgery, also called thoracic surgery is the surgery carried out to treat the organs inside the chest (thorax), or the surgical treatment of heart disease as well as lung disease. In many countries, cardiac surgery which involves the heart and great vessels and thoracic surgery which involves the surgery of the esophagus, thymus, lungs are separate specialties.
Pediatric surgery involves the surgical procedures done on fetuses, infants, children and adolescents as well as young adults. Neonatal surgery, fetal surgery are subspecialties of this type of surgery. Pediatric surgery developed majorly after the new techniques to use endotracheal anesthesia were discovered, after which infants could be operated upon to correct congenital defects.